Hesperian Health Guides

Appendix A: Child Development Charts

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HealthWiki > Helping Children Who Are Blind > Appendix A: Child Development Charts


How to use these child development charts


Children develop in several main areas: physical (body), mental (mind), communication (gesturing or talking), and social (relating to other people). Some skills a child learns include all these areas. For example, when a child reaches her arms up to be held, she is using a:

HCWB AppendixA Page 176-1.png
  • physical skill — she holds up her arms
  • mental skill — she recognizes you
  • communication skill — she tells you what she wants
  • social skill — she enjoys being held by you

The charts below show some of the skills children learn and when most children learn them. You can use the chart to get general information about how children develop and to help you decide what skills your child needs to learn.

HCWB AppendixA Page 176-2.png
6
months
HCWB AppendixA Page 176-3.png
12
months
HCWB AppendixA Page 176-4.png
2
years
The charts show how children's physical skills change as children grow.

To help you decide what skills your child needs to learn

Find the chart for the age group closest to your child's age. On the chart, circle the skills your child has. You may find your child does not have some skills that other children his age have. Knowing this can help you decide which activities you want to work on with your child.


HCWB AppendixA Page 177-1.png


In the chart above, a mother has circled the skills her 20-month-old daughter can do. Her child needs activities to help her gain physical and communication skills.

Look first in the chapters that focus on the skills you want to teach your child, but you will find useful information in other chapters as well.

Chapter →

Area of Development
Activities for the Young Baby
5
Communi-
cation
6
Thinking Skills
7
Teaching Everyday Activities
8
Movement
10
Helping Your Child Know Where She Is
11
Becoming Part of the Community
13
Getting Ready for Child-care and School
14
Physical
Mental
Social
Communication

Each part of this circle shows a different area of development. The pictures and words are examples of skills that many babies have when they are 3 months old.


DevChart background.png
3
months
old
Communication
Mental
Social
Physical


DevChart 3mo 1-1.png
responds to
familiar voices
or faces
DevChart 3mo 1-2.png
reacts to
sudden sounds
DevChart 3mo 2-1.png
recognizes main caregivers
DevChart 3mo 2-2.png
cries when hungry or uncomfortable
DevChart 3mo 3-1.png
can be
soothed by
voice or touch
DevChart 3mo 3-2.png
smiles when
played with
DevChart 3mo 4-1.png
is aware of hands
DevChart 3mo 4-2.png
sucks on breast
DevChart 3mo 4-3.png
lifts head up when on belly


Babies who cannot do 2 skills in any part of the circle will benefit from activities that help babies develop in that area, but the pictures are only examples of skills. For example, in the Communication part of the circle: You do not have to play the flute! The question to ask yourself is if your baby reacts to a sudden sound.

Keep in mind that the goal is for your baby to do the activities that other babies the same age do in your community.

Each part of this circle shows a different area of development. The pictures and words are examples of skills that many babies have when they are 6 months old.


DevChart background.png
6
months
old
Communication
Mental
Social
Physical
DevChart 6mo 1-1-a.png
makes simple
sounds
aaah
DevChart 6mo 1-2.png
turns head toward sounds
DevChart 6mo 2-1.png
picks up things and puts them
in mouth
DevChart 6mo 2-2.png
plays with toys in different ways
DevChart 6mo 2-3.png
is interested in objects
DevChart 6mo 3-1.png
shows fear
with
strangers
DevChart 6mo 3-2.png
makes requests for attention
DevChart 6mo 3-3.png
recognizes several people
DevChart 6mo 4-1.png
rolls from stomach to back
and from back to stomach
DevChart 6mo 4-2.png
sits with
some
support
DevChart 6mo 4-3.png
wiggles and kicks
arms and legs


Babies who cannot do 2 skills in any part of the circle will benefit from activities that help babies develop in that area, but the pictures are only examples of skills. For example, in the Physical part of the circle: Your baby does not have to play with a rattle. The question to ask yourself is if your baby wiggles and kicks.

Keep in mind that a baby will learn best by doing activities that other babies the same age do in your community.

Each part of this circle shows a different area of development. The pictures and words are examples of skills that many babies have when they are 12 months old.



DevChart background.png
12
months
old
Communication
Mental
Social
Physical


understands simple
words or signs
Give it
to me.
DevChart 12mo 1-1-a.png
DevChart 12mo 1-2.png
DevChart 12mo 1-3.png
joins
sounds
together
begins to
name
things
ba-ba
ga-ga
wa wa
DevChart 12mo 2-1-a.png
learns that an object exists even if it is
out of sight
DevChart 12mo 2-2.png
works to solve simple problems
DevChart 12mo 2-3.png
begins to
understand cause
and effect
DevChart 12mo 3-1.png
uses
gestures
DevChart 12mo 3-2.png
cries when caregiver leaves
DevChart 12mo 3-3.png
begins to enjoy social
games like peek-a-boo
DevChart 12mo 4-1.png
sits without help
DevChart 12mo 4-2.png
crawls
DevChart 12mo 4-3.png
pulls to
standing
position

Babies who cannot do 2 skills in any part of the circle will benefit from activities that help babies develop in that area, but the pictures are only examples of skills. For example, in the Social part of the circle: You do not have to play peek-a-boo with your baby. The question to ask yourself is if your baby enjoys social games.

Keep in mind that a baby will learn best by doing activities that other babies the same age do in your community.

Each part of this circle shows a different area of development. The pictures and words are examples of skills that many children have when they are 2 years old.


DevChart background.png
2
years
old
Communication
Mental
Social
Physical
uses 2 and
3 word
sentences
play
ball
DevChart 2yr 1-1-a.png
papa
papa
DevChart 2yr 1-2-a.png
DevChart 2yr 1-3.png
uses
simple
words
imitates single
words or signs
cup
DevChart 2yr 2-1.png
matches
objects
DevChart 2yr 2-2.png
uses objects related to
each other
DevChart 2yr 2-3.png
pays attention to
activities for
longer times
DevChart 2yr 3-1.png
plays alongside
other children
DevChart 2yr 3-2.png
imitates caregiver
DevChart 2yr 3-3.png
asks other
when she
needs help
DevChart 2yr 4-1.png
stacks large
objects
DevChart 2yr 4-2.png
walks
DevChart 2yr 4-3.png
squats

Children who cannot do 2 skills in any part of the circle will benefit from activities that help children develop in that area, but the pictures are only examples of skills. For example, in the Mental part of the circle: Your child does not have to be able to play a drum. The question to ask yourself is if your child uses 2 objects together.

Keep in mind that a child will learn best by doing activities that other children the same age do in your community.

Each part of this circle shows a different area of development. The pictures and words are examples of skills that many children have when they are 3 years old.


DevChart background.png
3
years
old
Communication
Mental
Social
Physical
DevChart 3yr 1-1-a.png
Where's
your
mouth?
DevChart 3yr 1-3.png
communicates clearly
I want to go
with papa
understands most
simple language


DevChart 3yr 2-1.png
fits shapes into
matching holes or
spaces
DevChart 3yr 2-2.png
sorts
objects
DevChart 3yr 2-3.png
takes things apart and puts them together
DevChart 3yr 3-1.png
likes to be praised after
doing simple tasks
Thank you
for helping
DevChart 3yr 3-2.png
enjoys helping
around the house
DevChart 3yr 3-3.png
is aware of people's
feelings
DevChart 3yr 4-1.png
runs, jumps, climbs
DevChart 3yr 4-2.png
uses hand for
more complex
tasks
DevChart 3yr 4-3.png
throws
a ball

Children who cannot do 2 skills in any part of the circle will benefit from activities that help children develop in that area, but the pictures are only examples of skills. For example, in the Social part of the circle: Your child does not have to sweep the floor. The question to ask yourself is if your child enjoys helping work with the family.

Keep in mind that a child will learn best by doing activities that other children the same age do in your community.

Each part of this circle shows a different area of development. The pictures and words are examples of skills that many children have when they are 5 years old.


DevChart background.png
5
years
old
Communication
Mental
Social
Physical
DevChart 5yr 1-1-a.png
I fell in
the
water
DevChart 5yr 1-3-a.png
asks many questions
What's
making that
noise? What
do they
look like?
talks about what
he has done


DevChart 5yr 2-1.png
follows simple
directions
DevChart 5yr 2-2.png
does
simple
puzzles
DevChart 5yr 2-3.png
understands
counting
DevChart 5yr 3-1.png
understands rules
DevChart 5yr 3-2.png
plays with other children
DevChart 5yr 3-3-a.png
I'm sad.
I'm sorry.
expresses
many
feelings
DevChart 5yr 4-1.png
copies simple
shapes
DevChart 5yr 4-2.png
easily walks
backwards
DevChart 5yr 4-3.png
hops on one foot

Children who cannot do 2 skills in any part of the circle will benefit from activities that help children develop in that area, but the pictures are only examples of skills. For example, in the Social part of the circle: Your child does not have to be listening to a teacher. The question to ask yourself is if your child understands rules like other children do.

Keep in mind that a child will learn best by doing activities that other children the same age do in your community.