Hesperian Health Guides

Hesperian Health Guides

Appendix A: Child Development Charts

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HealthWiki > Helping Children Who Are Blind > Appendix A: Child Development Charts


In this chapter:
How to use these child development charts


Children develop in several main areas: physical (body), mental (mind), communication (gesturing or talking), and social (relating to other people). Some skills a child learns include all these areas. For example, when a child reaches her arms up to be held, she is using a:

  • physical skill — she holds up her arms
  • mental skill — she recognizes you
  • communication skill — she tells you what she wants
  • social skill — she enjoys being held by you

The charts below show some of the skills children learn and when most children learn them. You can use the chart to get general information about how children develop and to help you decide what skills your child needs to learn.

6
months
12
months
2
years
The charts show how children's physical skills change as children grow.

To help you decide what skills your child needs to learn

Find the chart for the age group closest to your child's age. On the chart, circle the skills your child has. You may find your child does not have some skills that other children his age have. Knowing this can help you decide which activities you want to work on with your child.



In the chart above, a mother has circled the skills her 20-month-old daughter can do. Her child needs activities to help her gain physical and communication skills.

Look first in the chapters that focus on the skills you want to teach your child, but you will find useful information in other chapters as well.

Chapter →

Area of Development
Activities for the Young Baby
5
Communi-
cation
6
Thinking Skills
7
Teaching Everyday Activities
8
Movement
10
Helping Your Child Know Where She Is
11
Becoming Part of the Community
13
Getting Ready for Child-care and School
14
Physical
Mental
Social
Communication

Each part of this circle shows a different area of development. The pictures and words are examples of skills that many babies have when they are 3 months old.


3
months
old
Communication
Mental
Social
Physical


responds to
familiar voices
or faces
reacts to
sudden sounds
recognizes main caregivers
cries when hungry or uncomfortable
can be
soothed by
voice or touch
smiles when
played with
is aware of hands
sucks on breast
lifts head up when on belly


Babies who cannot do 2 skills in any part of the circle will benefit from activities that help babies develop in that area, but the pictures are only examples of skills. For example, in the Communication part of the circle: You do not have to play the flute! The question to ask yourself is if your baby reacts to a sudden sound.

Keep in mind that the goal is for your baby to do the activities that other babies the same age do in your community.

Each part of this circle shows a different area of development. The pictures and words are examples of skills that many babies have when they are 6 months old.


6
months
old
Communication
Mental
Social
Physical
makes simple
sounds
aaah
turns head toward sounds
picks up things and puts them
in mouth
plays with toys in different ways
is interested in objects
shows fear
with
strangers
makes requests for attention
recognizes several people
rolls from stomach to back
and from back to stomach
sits with
some
support
wiggles and kicks
arms and legs


Babies who cannot do 2 skills in any part of the circle will benefit from activities that help babies develop in that area, but the pictures are only examples of skills. For example, in the Physical part of the circle: Your baby does not have to play with a rattle. The question to ask yourself is if your baby wiggles and kicks.

Keep in mind that a baby will learn best by doing activities that other babies the same age do in your community.

Each part of this circle shows a different area of development. The pictures and words are examples of skills that many babies have when they are 12 months old.



12
months
old
Communication
Mental
Social
Physical


understands simple
words or signs
Give it
to me.
joins
sounds
together
begins to
name
things
ba-ba
ga-ga
wa wa
learns that an object exists even if it is
out of sight
works to solve simple problems
begins to
understand cause
and effect
uses
gestures
cries when caregiver leaves
begins to enjoy social
games like peek-a-boo
sits without help
crawls
pulls to
standing
position

Babies who cannot do 2 skills in any part of the circle will benefit from activities that help babies develop in that area, but the pictures are only examples of skills. For example, in the Social part of the circle: You do not have to play peek-a-boo with your baby. The question to ask yourself is if your baby enjoys social games.

Keep in mind that a baby will learn best by doing activities that other babies the same age do in your community.

Each part of this circle shows a different area of development. The pictures and words are examples of skills that many children have when they are 2 years old.


2
years
old
Communication
Mental
Social
Physical
uses 2 and
3 word
sentences
play
ball
papa
papa
uses
simple
words
imitates single
words or signs
cup
matches
objects
uses objects related to
each other
pays attention to
activities for
longer times
plays alongside
other children
imitates caregiver
asks other
when she
needs help
stacks large
objects
walks
squats

Children who cannot do 2 skills in any part of the circle will benefit from activities that help children develop in that area, but the pictures are only examples of skills. For example, in the Mental part of the circle: Your child does not have to be able to play a drum. The question to ask yourself is if your child uses 2 objects together.

Keep in mind that a child will learn best by doing activities that other children the same age do in your community.

Each part of this circle shows a different area of development. The pictures and words are examples of skills that many children have when they are 3 years old.


3
years
old
Communication
Mental
Social
Physical
Where's
your
mouth?
communicates clearly
I want to go
with papa
understands most
simple language


fits shapes into
matching holes or
spaces
sorts
objects
takes things apart and puts them together
likes to be praised after
doing simple tasks
Thank you
for helping
enjoys helping
around the house
is aware of people's
feelings
runs, jumps, climbs
uses hand for
more complex
tasks
throws
a ball

Children who cannot do 2 skills in any part of the circle will benefit from activities that help children develop in that area, but the pictures are only examples of skills. For example, in the Social part of the circle: Your child does not have to sweep the floor. The question to ask yourself is if your child enjoys helping work with the family.

Keep in mind that a child will learn best by doing activities that other children the same age do in your community.

Each part of this circle shows a different area of development. The pictures and words are examples of skills that many children have when they are 5 years old.


5
years
old
Communication
Mental
Social
Physical
I fell in
the
water
asks many questions
What's
making that
noise? What
do they
look like?
talks about what
he has done


follows simple
directions
does
simple
puzzles
understands
counting
understands rules
plays with other children
I'm sad.
I'm sorry.
expresses
many
feelings
copies simple
shapes
easily walks
backwards
hops on one foot

Children who cannot do 2 skills in any part of the circle will benefit from activities that help children develop in that area, but the pictures are only examples of skills. For example, in the Social part of the circle: Your child does not have to be listening to a teacher. The question to ask yourself is if your child understands rules like other children do.

Keep in mind that a child will learn best by doing activities that other children the same age do in your community.


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