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Table of Medicines: Green Pages

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HealthWiki > A Health Handbook for Women with Disabilities > How to use the green pages > Tables of medicines: Green Pages


Contents

Green Pages

The medicines in this section appear under their generic names, in the order of the alphabet:

acetaminophen or paracetamol (APAP, Panadol, Tempra, Tylenol, others)

Acetaminophen and paracetamol are 2 names for the same medicine that is used to ease pain and lower fever.
See paracetamol.

Pregnant women need to take special care

WARNING!
acyclovir (Zovirax)

Acyclovir is a medicine that kills viruses and is used to fight herpes, which can cause painful blisters on the genitals and anus, and in the mouth.

Information you
should know
Acyclovir will not stop herpes from coming back, but it makes it less painful and keeps it from spreading.
Side effects
May sometimes cause headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting.
Often comes in:
Tablets of 200, 400, or 800 mg
Ointment 5%
The tablets are much more effective than the ointment and usually cost less. Take with lots of water.

How to use:
For genital herpes infection,
take 200 mg by mouth 5 times a day for 7 to 10 days; or apply ointment on sores 6 times a day for 7 days. Wash hands immediately.

Warning
Do not take this medicine if you have kidney problems.

adrenaline or epinephrine (Adrenalin)

Adrenaline and epinephrine are 2 names for the same medicine. It is used for severe allergic reactions or allergic shock, and for severe asthma attacks.
See epinephrine.

amoxicillin (Amoxifar, Amoxil, Himox, Megamox, Sumoxil)

Amoxicillin is an antibiotic of the penicillin family used to treat many kinds of infections. Because of high levels of drug resistance, it is less useful than previously.

Information you
should know
Take with food. If you do not start to get better in 3 days, get medical help. You may need a different medicine
Side effects
Diarrhea, rash, nausea or vomiting. May cause yeast infection in women, or diaper rash on a baby or child's bottom.
Often comes in:
Tablets of 250 and 500 mg

How to use:
For bladder infection, take 500 mg 3 times a day for 3 days.

For chlamydia, take 500 mg by mouth
3 times a day for 7 days.

See drug combinations to treat vaginal discharge

For kidney infection, take 500 mg, by mouth,
3 times a day for 7 days.

For infection of the womb after childbirth,
take 1 gram 3 times a day for 10 days (also use other medicines).

Other medicines
that may work
For bladder or kidney infection: cefixime, ciprofloxacin, cotrimoxazole, nitrofurantoin, norfloxacin.

For womb infection after birth: ampicillin, doxycycline, metronidazole

Warning
Do not use if allergic to medicines of the penicillin family.

ampicillin (Amcil, Ampicin, Omnipen, Penbritin, Polycillin)

Ampicillin is an antibiotic of the penicillin family used to treat many kinds of infections. Because of high levels of drug resistance, it is less useful than previously.

Information you
should know
Take ampicillin before eating. If you do not start to get better in 3 days, look for medical help. You may need another medicine.
Side effects
May cause stomach upset, diarrhea, and rash.
Often comes in:
Tablets or capsules of 250 or 500 mg

How to use:
For womb infection during pregnancy, take 500 mg 4 times a day until you can get medical attention.

For infection during labor, give 2 g by mouth 4 times a day for 7 to 10 days.

For infection after birth, give 2 g by mouth 4 times a day until fever has been gone for 48 hours. Give other antibiotics too.

Other medicines
that may work
For womb infection during pregnancy: metronidazole

For womb infection after birth: amoxicillin, doxycycline, metronidazole

Warning
Do not use ampicillin if you are allergic to medicines of the penicillin family.

Pregnant women need to take special care

WARNING!
aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, ASA)

Aspirin works against swelling, pain - including joint pain of arthritis - and fever.

Information you
should know
Try to take aspirin with food or milk or a large glass of water.
Side effects
May cause stomach upset, stomach pain, or bleeding problems.
Signs of taking too much
Ringing in the ears, headache, dizziness, confusion, fast breathing.
Often comes in:
Tablets of 300 or 600 mg and other sizes.

How to use:
For pain, swelling or fever, take 300 to 600 mg by mouth no more than 6 times a day as needed.

Other medicines
that may work
For pain or fever: paracetamol

For pain, fever, or swelling: ibuprofen
Interactions with other medicines:
with valproic acid: May increase the concentration of the valproic acid
with phenytoin: May increase the concentration of the phenytoin
Warning
Women should not take aspirin during the last 3 months of pregnancy. People with stomach ulcers or bleeding problems should not take aspirin. Do not use before surgery. Do not use if breastfeeding in the first week of the baby’s life. Do not give to children. If the ears begin to ring (an early sign of poisoning), stop taking aspirin until the ringing stops. Then take it again, but in a slightly lower dose.
azithromycin (Zithromax)

Azithromycin is an antibiotic of the macrolide family, used to treat many STIs. It is expensive and often hard to find, but it works well against STIs when other antibiotics do not.

Information you
should know
Take at least 1 hour before eating or at least 2 hours after eating. Azithromycin is an excellent treatment for STIs that cause discharge or genital sores. It is good for treating STIs where there is resistance to other medicines.
Side effects
Diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain
Often comes in:
Capsules of 250 mg

How to use:
For chlamydia, chancroid, or PID, take 1 gram by mouth one time only

Other medicines
that may work

For chlamydia: amoxicillin, doxycycline, erythromycin, tetracycline
For chancroid: ciprofloxacin, erythromycin
For PID: drug combinations for PID

Warning
Do not take if you are allergic to erythromycin and other antibiotics of the macrolide family.


benzathine penicillin (Bicillin L-A, Penadur L-A, Permapen)

Benzathine penicillin is a long-acting antibiotic of the penicillin family used to treat syphilis, genital ulcers, and other infections.

Information you
should know
Is always given as an injection into a large muscle.
Side effects
In some people: Itchy raised spots or rashes

Rarely: A dangerous reaction called allergic shock. Soon after penicillin is injected, the person suddenly gets pale (cold sweat), weak, rapid pulse or heartbeat, difficulty breathing, loss of consciousness. Epinephrine must be injected at once.
Often comes in:
Powder for mixing injections of 1.2 or 2.4 million Units in a 5 ml vial.

How to use:
For syphilis, if there is a sore, inject 2.4 million Units into a large muscle one time only. If there is a blood test, or the sores have already disappeared, then inject once every week for 3 weeks.

Other medicines
that may work
For syphilis: doxycycline, tetracycline, erythromycin

Warning
Have ephinephrine on hand whenever penicillin is injected. Watch for allergic reactions and allergic shock, which could start within 30 minutes.

benzylpenicillin (Celinex, Hi-Do-Pen, penicillin G potassium or sodium)

Benzylpenicillin is an antibiotic of the penicillin family used to treat many serious infections.

Information you
should know
Be ready to treat an allergic reaction.
Side effects
May cause yeast infection in women or diaper rash in children.
Often comes in:
Powder for mixing for injection of 1 or 5 million Units
How to use:
For tetanus in newborns, inject 100,000 Units/kg into muscle 1 time only and get medical help.

Warning
Watch for allergic reactions and signs of shock. Do not give to people who are allergic to medicines of the penicillin family.


cefixime (Suprax)

Cefixime is an antibiotic of the cephalosporin family used to treat many infections including gonorrhea, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), and kidney infection.

Information you
should know
Watch for allergic reaction.
Side effects
Upset stomach, diarrhea, headache
Often comes in:
Tablets of 200 or 400 mg
Liquid of 100 mg in 5 ml

How to use:
For gonorrhea, take 400 mg, by mouth, one time only

PID see drug combinations to treat vaginal discharge or PID

For kidney infection, take 500 mg, by mouth, 2 times a day for 10 days.

Other medicines
that may work
For gonorrhea: doxycycline
For kidney infection: ciprofloxacin, cotrimoxazole,

Warning
People who have liver problems should be careful when taking cefixime. Do not use if you are allergic to antibiotics of the cephalosporin family.

Pregnant women should not take this medicine

Breastfeeding women should not take this medicine

WARNING!
ciprofloxacin (Ciloxan, Cipro, Ciprobay)

Ciprofloxacin is an antibiotic of the quinolone family, used to treat skin and kidney infections, and some STIs like chancroid.

Information you
should know
Drink lots of water. You can eat while taking ciprofloxacin, just avoid dairy products.
Side effects
Nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, headache
Often comes in:
Tablets of 250, 500, or 750 mg

How to use:
For chancroid take 500 mg, by mouth, 2 times a day for 3 days.

For infection after childbirth, take 500 mg by mouth,
2 times a day.

For kidney infection: Take 500 mg by mouth,
2 times a day for 10 days.

Other medicines
that may work
For gonorrhea:cefixime,
For chancroid: azithromycin, erythromycin
For kidney infection: cefixime, cotrimoxazole

Warning
This medicine reacts with caffeine (in coffee, chocolate, cola drinks, etc.), making the caffeine even stronger. Do not take with dairy products. Do not use if you are pregnant, breastfeeding, or younger than 16 years old.

Breastfeeding women need to take special care

WARNING!
clindamycin (Cleocin, Dalasin)

Clindamycin is an antibiotic of the lincosamide family that is used to treat infections of the vagina, pelvis, and skin.

Information you
should know
Using this medicine with erythromycin or chloramphenicol can make both medicines less effective. If you have your monthly bleeding while using the cream, do not use a tampon because it will absorb the medicine.
Side effects
Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea can happen within a few weeks of using this medicine. If clindamycin gives you a skin rash, stop using it and see your health worker.

Often comes in:
Capsules of 25 mg, 75 mg, 150 mg, 300 mg
Cream 2%

How to use:
For bacterial vaginosis, take 300 mg by mouth 2 times a day for 7 days. Or, put 5 g of cream high in the vagina each night at bedtime for 7 nights.

For trichomonas, take 300 mg by mouth 2 times a day for 7 days.

See drug combinations to treat vaginal discharge or PID.

Other medicines
that may work
For bacterial vaginosis: metronidazole

Warning
Using for more than 30 days can lead to thrush and yeast infections, and can harm people with kidney or liver problems. The vaginal cream can weaken condoms for up to 3 days after use. If you are breastfeeding and this medicine gives your baby diarrhea, stop using it.

clotrimazole(Canesten, Gyne-Lotrimin, Mycelex)

Clotrimazole is an anti-fungal medicine used to treat yeast and other fungus infections in the vagina, mouth, and skin.

Information you
should know
Avoid having sex for 3 days after using clotrimazole for vaginal infections. It can weaken condoms and diaphragms. Be sure to keep it out of your eyes, and stop using clotrimazole if it irritates you.
Side effects
Irritation, stomach upset (with lozenges).
Often comes in:
Cream at 1%, 2%, 10%
Inserts of 100 mg, 200 mg, and 500 mg
Lozenges of 10 mg

How to use:
For yeast infections of the vagina
100 mg inserts or 1% cream: Put 1 insert or 5 g of cream high in the vagina every night for 7 nights.
200 mg inserts or 2% cream: Put 1 insert or 5 g of cream high in the vagina every night for 3 nights.
For yeast infections of the mouth (thrush): Take 1 lozenge 5 times a day for 14 days. Suck on the lozenge, do not chew or swallow it whole.
For skin infections: Lightly rub cream onto the infected area 2 times a day for 2 to 8 weeks.

Other medicines
that may work
gentian violet, nystatin, miconzaole

Pregnant women need to take special care

WARNING!
cotrimoxazole = trimethoprim + sulfamethoxazole (AzoGantanol, Bactrim, Coptin, Gantanol, Pologrim, Septra, Sulfatrim, TMP/SMX, Trimpex, others)

Cotrimoxazole is a combination of 2 antibiotics (one from the sulfa family) that is used to treat bladder and kidney infections, vaginal discharge caused by gonorrhea, and chancroid. It also helps prevent diarrhea and pneumonia, and other infections for people with HIV.

Information you
should know
Take with lots of water.
Side effects
Stop taking if it causes allergic reactions such as itching or rashes. Also may cause nausea and vomiting. Sign of taking too much are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, confusion and sweating.

Often comes in:
Tablets of 120 mg (20 mg trimethoprim + 100 mg sulfamethoxazole)
Tablets of 480 mg (80 mg trimethoprim + 400 mg sulfamethoxazole—called “single strength”)
Tablets of 960 mg (160 mg trimethoprim + 800 mg sulfamethoxazole—called “double strength”)
Liquid of 240 mg (40 mg trimethoprim +
200 mg sulfamethoxazole) per 5 ml

How to use:
For bladder infection, take two 480 mg tablets by mouth 2 times a day for 3 days.
For kidney infection, take two 480 mg tablets by mouth 2 times a day for 10 days.
For prevention of pneumonia and diarrhea for people with HIV, take two 480 mg tablets every day.
For bloody diarrhea for people with AIDS, take two 480 mg tablets by mouth 2 times a day for 10 days.
For pneumonia for people with AIDS: Take four 480 mg tablets by mouth 3 times a day for 21 days.

Other medicines
that may work
For bladder and kidney infections: cefixime, ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin
For diarrhea for people with AIDS: norfloxacin, metronidazole
Interactions with other medicines:
With phenytoin: The levels of phenytoin may increase and cause difficulty controlling body movement (ataxia), or eye movement (nystagmus), and confusion.
With dapsone: May increase the levels of trimethopin and may increase the risk of anemia.

Warning
Women in the last months of pregnancy should avoid this drug. Do not take cotrimoxazole if you are allergic to sulfa antibiotics.


Pregnant women need to take special care

Breastfeeding women need to take special care

WARNING!
diazepam (Anxionil, Calmpose, Valium)

Diazepam is a tranquilizer used to treat and prevent convulsions and seizures. It also relieves anxiety and helps promote sleep.

Information you
should know
Diazepam is a habit-forming (addictive) medicine. Avoid taking with other drugs that will make you sleepy, especially alcohol.
Side effects
Sleepiness, loss of balance, confusion

Often comes in:
Tablets of 5 to 10 mg
Liquid for injections of 5 mg per 1 ml, or 10 mg per 2 ml

How to use:
For convulsions during pregnancy, give 20 mg of injectable diazepam in the rectum using a syringe without a needle. After 10 minutes, repeat if needed, using 15 mg after convulsions. Use crushed up tablets in water if you do not have injectable diazepam.

Warning
Frequent or large doses of diazepam during pregnancy can cause birth defects. This medicine also passes through breastmilk, so breastfeeding mothers should avoid it except in emergencies.
dicloxacillin

Dicloxacillin is an antibiotic of the penicillin family used to treat breast and skin infections.

Information you
should know
Be ready to treat an allergic reaction.
Side effects
Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea. May cause yeast infection in women, or a rash on a baby or small child’s bottom.

Often comes in:
Capsules of 125, 250, or 500 mg
Liquid of 62.5 mg per 5 ml

How to use:
For breast or skin infections: Take 500 mg by mouth, 4 times a day for 7 to 10 days.

Other medicines
that may work
For breast or skin infections: erythromycin, penicillin
Warning
Do not take dicloxacillin if you are allergic to medicines in the penicillin family.

Pregnant women should not take this medicine

Breastfeeding women should not take this medicine

WARNING!
doxycycline (Biocolyn, Doryx, Monodox, Vibramycin, Vibra-Tabs)

Doxycycline is an antibiotic of the tetracycline family used for many infections, including STIs, and pelvic and skin infections.

Information you
should know
Do not take with milk, other dairy products, or antacids. Do not take just before lying down. Take while sitting up and with lots of water to prevent the irritation this medicine can cause.
Side effects
Diarrhea or upset stomach. Some people get a rash after staying in the sun. May cause yeast infection in women, or a rash on a baby or child’s bottom.
Often comes in:
Tablets of 50 and 100 mg

How to use:
For chlamydia, take 100 mg by mouth 2 times a day for 7 days.
For syphilis when the genital sore is still visible, take 100 mg by mouth 2 times a day for 14 to 21 days.
See drug combinations for vaginal discharge or PID
For pressure sores or other skin infections, take 100 mg by mouth 2 times a day for 14 days.
For infections after childbirth, take 100 mg by mouth 2 times a day until fever has been gone for 2 full days..

Other medicines
that may work
For syphilis: benzathine penicillin, erythromycin, tetracycline
For gonorrhea: cefixime, ciprofloxacin
For chlamydia: amoxicillin, azithromycin, erythromycin, tetracycline
For skin infection: dicloxacillin, erythromycin, penicillin, tetracycline
For infection after childbirth ampicillin, metronidazole

Warning
Pregnant and breastfeeding women should not take doxycycline. Do not use doxycycline that has been in the sun or has passed the expiration date.


epinephrine or adrenaline (Adrenalin)

Epinephrine and adrenaline are two names for the same drug. It is used for allergic reactions or allergic shock, for example, allergic shock caused by penicillin.

Information you
should know
Take the person’s pulse before injecting. Do not give more than 3 doses. If the pulse goes up by more than 30 beats per minute after the first injections, do not give another dose.
Side effects
Fear, restlessness, nervousness, tension, headaches, dizziness, increased heart rate.
Signs of taking too much
High blood pressure, fast heart beat, stroke.
Often comes in:
Ampules for injection of 1 mg in 1 ml

How to use:
For moderate allergic reaction or allergic shock: Inject ½ mg (½ ml) just under the skin (not into muscle) of upper arm. If needed, a second dose can be given after 20 to 30 minutes, and a third dose after another 20 to 30 minutes

Warning
Be careful never to give more than the recommended amount. Avoid injecting this into the buttocks, instead use the back of the upper arm.

ergometrine maleate, methylergonovine maleate (Anurhage, Ergonovine, Ergotrate, Methergine, methylergonovine)

Ergometrine causes contractions of the womb and its blood vessels and is used to control heavy bleeding after childbirth. Ergometrine and methylergonovine are the same drug. After giving this medicine, get medical help.

Side effects
Nausea, vomiting, dizziness, sweating.
Often comes in:
Tablets of 0.2 mg

How to use:
For heavy bleeding after childbirth, after the placenta has come out, give 1 tablet (0.2 mg) by mouth every 6 to 12 hours as needed.

Warning
Do not use ergometrine to start or speed up labor or to cause an abortion.

Do not give this drug before the baby and the placenta have come out.

erythromycin (E.E.S., E-Mycin, Ery-max, Ethril, Ilosone, Ilotycin)

Erythromycin is an antibiotic of the macrolide family used to treat many infections, including some STIs and skin infections. It can be used safely during pregnancy and is widely available.

Information you
should know
Erythromycin works best when taken 1 hour before or 2 hours after a meal. If this upsets your stomach too much, take it with a little food.

Do not break up the tablets. Tablets are often coated to prevent strong stomach juices breaking down the medicine before it can begin to work.
Side effects
May upset stomach or cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea.
Often comes in:
Tablets or capsules of 200, 250, or 500 mg
Ointment 1%
Powder for solution of 125 mg per 5 ml

How to use:
For chlamydia: 500 mg by mouth 4 times a day for
7 days.
See drug combinations to treat vaginal discharge or PID
For chancroid, take 500 mg by mouth 4 times a day for 7 days
For syphilis, take 500 mg by mouth 4 times a day for 14 to 21 days.
For breast infection, take 500 mg by mouth 4 times a day for 7 days.
For pressure sores or other skin infections, take 250 mg by mouth 4 times a day for 7 to 10 days.
For eye infection (conjunctivitis), put a little ointment inside the lower lid 3 to 4 times a day for 2 to 3 days.
For newborn eye-care, put a little 1% ointment
in each eye within 2 hours of birth.

Other medicines
that may work
For chlamydia: amoxicillin, azithromycin, doxycycline, tetracycline
For chancroid: azithromycin, ciprofloxacin
For syphilis: benzathine penicillin, doxycycline, tetracycline
For breast infection: dicloxacillin
For skin infection: dicloxacillin, doxycycline, penicillin, tetracycline
For baby eye care: tetracycline ointment

Warning
Do not take erythromycin if you are allergic to medicines in the macrolide family.


Gentian violet (Crystal Violet, methylrosanilinium chloride)

Gentian violet is a liquid disinfectant used to help fight infections of the skin, mouth, and vagina.

Information you
should know
After putting this in an infant’s mouth, turn the baby face down so it does not swallow too much. Gentian violet will stain your skin and clothes purple.
Side effects
Long-term use causes irritation. Use on a sore or on broken skin may stain that skin purple when it heals.
Often comes in:
Liquid in 0.5%, 1%, 2%
Tincture in 0.5%
Crystals of 1 teaspoon in ½ liter of water makes a 2% liquid.

How to use:
For vaginal yeast infections, soak clean cotton with 1% liquid and place high in the vagina overnight for 3 nights. Be sure to remove the cotton every morning.
For yeast infections in the mouth (thrush), rinse the mouth with 1% liquid for 1 minute 2 times a day, but do not swallow.
For skin infections, first wash with soap and water, and dry. Then paint on skin, mouth, or vulva 3 times a day for 5 days.
For skin infections for people with AIDS, first wash with soap and water, and dry. Then paint on skin, mouth, or vulva 2 times a day until rash is gone.

Other medicines
that may work
For skin infections: antibiotic ointments, iodine
For thrush in the mouth: lemon (not for babies), nystatin
For vaginal yeast infections: nystatin, miconazole, clotrimazole
Warning
Do not have sex while you are using gentian violet for a vaginal infection, to avoid passing the infection to your partner. Stop using gentian violet if it starts to irritate you. Keep it away from eyes.


hydrocortisone or cortisol(Eczacort, Hyocotil, Solu-Cortef, others)

Hydrocortisone is an anti-swelling and anti-itch skin cream used to treat rashes. It is also useful for treating hemorrhoids (piles).

Information you
should know
Do not cover the cream with a bandage. Pregnant and breastfeeding women can safely use cream, but should use tablets with caution.
Side effects
Cream may cause thinning and scarring of skin if used for more than 10 days.
Often comes in:
Cream or ointment in many strengths, often 1%

How to use:
For rash, itching or piles, apply cream directly on skin 3 or 4 times a day.


Pregnant women need to take special care

WARNING!
ibuprofen (Actiprofen, Advil, Genpril, Motrin, Nuprin, Rufen, others)

Ibuprofen works against pain, swelling, and fever. It is very useful to relieve discomfort during monthly bleeding and pain from arthritis and AIDS.

Information you
should know
Causes less irritation to the stomach if taken with food, especially dairy products.
Side effects
May cause stomach irritation or pain, ringing in the ears, constipation.
Often comes in:
Tablets of 200 mg and larger
Liquid in 100 mg per 5 ml

How to use:
Take 200 to 400 mg 4 to 6 times a day.
Do not take more than 2400 mg daily.

Other medicines
that may work
For pain, swelling and fever: aspirin
For pain and fever: acetaminophen

Interactions with other medicines:
with phenytoin: May cause liver problems

Warning
Avoid taking within a week before or after surgery. Avoid using during the last 3 months of pregnancy.



lidocaine (Topicaine, Xylocaine)

Lidocaine gel is used on the skin to prevent and relieve pain caused by minor skin irritations, minor burns, minor cuts, and insect bites.

Side effects
Changes in skin color (these usually go away quickly), fluid-filled bumps on the skin.

Often comes in:
Ointment 2% to 4%

How to use:
To help prevent dysreflexia, insert a small amount into the anus before removing hard stools by hand. Or apply to the urine hole before putting in a catheter.


Pregnant women need to take special care

WARNING!
mebendazole (Vermox)

Mebendazole is a medicine that works against many different worm infections, including hookworm.

Side effects
There may be some belly pain or diarrhea, but side effects are not common.
Often comes in:
Tablets of 100 mg

How to use:
For hookworm take 100 mg by mouth 2 times a day for 3 days.

Other medicines
that may work
albendazole

Warning
Do not use if you are pregnant. Do not give to children under 2 years old.

Pregnant women need to take special care

WARNING!
metronidazole (Flagyl, Methoprotostat, Metro, Metroxyn, Satric)

Metronidazole is used for PID, vaginal and skin infections, and amebic dysentery.

Information you
should know
Your sexual partner should also be treated. Do not drink any alcohol while you are taking metronidazole. It will make you feel very nauseous.
Side effects
Metallic taste in the mouth, dark urine, nausea or upset stomach, headache.
Often comes in:
Tablets of 200, 250, 400, and 500 mg
Inserts of 375 and 500 mg

How to use:
For infection of the womb after childbirth, take 500 mg metronidazole by mouth 2 times a day until fever is gone for 2 days.
For bacterial vaginosis or trichomonas, take 2 grams by mouth 1 time only, but not if you are pregnant.
If you are pregnant, take 400 to 500 mg by mouth 2 times a day for 7 days.
See drug combinations to treat vaginal discharge or PID.
For bloody diarrhea in people with AIDS, with or without fever, take 500 mg by mouth 3 times a day for 7 days.

Other medicines
that may work
For diarrhea for people with AIDS: cotrimoxazole, norfloxacin

Warning
Stop taking it if you feel numb. Try not to use metronidazole during the first 3 months of pregnancy. If you must, do not take the 1 large dose during pregnancy. But if you are breastfeeding, the 1 large dose is safest. People with liver problems, such as jaundice, should not use it.


Pregnant women need to take special care

WARNING!
miconazole (Daktarin, Fungtopic, Micatin, Monistat)

Miconazole is an anti-fungus medicine used to treat yeast and other fungus infections in the vagina, or on the skin.

Information you
should know
If miconazole irritates you, stop using it. Avoid having sex for 3 to 4 days while using miconazole to avoid passing the infection to your partner. Keep it out of your eyes.
Side effects
Irritation
Often comes in:
Cream 2%
Inserts of 100 and 200 mg

How to use:
For yeast infections of the vagina:
Cream: Put 5 g in the vagina every night for 7 nights.
100 mg inserts: Put 1 high in the vagina every night for 7 nights.
200 mg inserts: put 1 high in the vagina every night for 3 nights.
For yeast infection on the skin, apply cream to affected area 2 times a day until infection is gone.

Other medicines
that may work
For all yeast infections: gentian violet, nystatin, clotrimazole

Warning
Do not use miconazole during the first 3 months of pregnancy..


nifedipine (Adalat, Nelapine, Nifecard, Nifed, Procardia)

Nifedipine is a medicine used to lower high blood pressure very quickly.

Information you
should know
Do not drink grapefruit juice with nifedipine The medicine will not work as well.
Side effects
Headache, dizziness, rash, flushing of the face
Often comes in:
Capsules and tablets of 10 mg

How to use:
Only for sudden high blood pressure caused by dysrelexia:
Capsule: Bite into the capsule and swallow it, or make a hole in the capsule and put under the tongue.
Tablet: Crush and mix with clean water into a soft paste and put under the tongue, or chew the tablet and swallow it with some water.

Interactions with other medicines:
With carbamazepine, phenobarbital or phenytoin: These medicines may not work as well while taking nifedipine.

Warning
Nifedipine should be used only for dysreflexia by someone with a spinal-cord injury. It should not be used for ongoing high blood pressure, hypertension, or heart problems.

Pregnant women need to take special care

WARNING!
nitrofurantoin (Furadantin, Macrobid, Macrodantin)

Nitrofurantoin is an antibiotic used to treat bladder infections.

Side effects
Nausea or vomiting, headaches, passing gas. To limit these, take with food or milk.
Signs of taking too much
Vomiting, chest pains. Urine may turn dark yellow or brown
Often comes in:
Tablets of 25, 50 or 100 mg
Suspension of 25 mg/5 ml

How to use:
For bladder infections, take 100 mg 2 times a day
for 3 days.

Other medicines
that may work
For bladder infections: amoxicillin , cotrimoxazole, norfloxacin
Warning
People with kidney problems should not take this medicine. Women in their last month of pregnancy should not take this medicine.

Pregnant women should not take this medicine

Breastfeeding women should not take this medicine

WARNING!
norfloxacin (Lexinor, Noroxin, Uritracin)

Norfloxacin is an antibiotic of the quinolone family used to treat bladder and kidney infections, and serious cases of diarrhea.

Side effects
May cause lightheadedness and increase the effects of caffeine. To limit these effects, take either 1 hour before eating or 2 hours after eating.
Often comes in:
Tablets of 400 mg

How to use:
For bladder infections, take 400 mg by mouth 2 times a day for 3 days.
For kidney infections, take 400 mg by mouth 2 times a day for 10 days.
For diarrhea for people with AIDS, take 400 mg by mouth 2 times a day for 4 to 7 days.

Other medicines
that may work
For bladder infections: amoxicillin, cotrimoxazole, nitrofurantoin
For kidney infections: amoxicillin, cefixime, ciprofloxacin, cotrimoxazole
For gonorrhea: cefixime, doxycyline
For diarrhea for people with AIDS: metronidazole, cotrimoxazole

Warning
Take with lots of water. Do not take this drug while using antacids or vitamins that contain iron or zinc. If norfloxacin or quinolone antibiotics give you an allergic reaction, do not use it. Women who are pregnant, breastfeeding, or under 16 years old should not take norfloxacin.

nystatin (Dermodex, Mycostatin, Nilstat, Nystat)

Nystatin is an anti-fungus medicine used to treat yeast infections in the mouth (thrush), the vagina, or the skin.

Information you
should know
Nystatin works only against candida yeast infections, while miconazole works against other fungal infections as well. Clotrimazole may be less costly and easier to use.
Often comes in:
Inserts of 100,000 U
Lozenges for the mouth of 200,000 U
Cream 100,000 U per gram
Liquid 100,000 U per ml

How to use:
For mouth or throat infections, 3 or 4 times a day, put 1 ml of liquid in mouth, swish around both sides of mouth for 1 minute and swallow. Do this for 5 days.
For skin infections, keep area dry and apply cream 3 times a day until rash is gone.
For vaginal infections, put cream inside the vagina twice daily for 10-14 days; or put 100,000 U insert high inside the vagina at bedtime for 14 nights.

Other medicines
that may work
miconazole, clotrimazole, vinegar or gentian violet
Warning
If nystatin causes you irritation, stop using it. Avoid having sex while using nystatin so you do not pass the infection to your partner.


paracetamol, acetaminophen (APAP, Panadol, Tempra, Tylenol, others)

Paracetamol and acetaminophen are 2 names for the same drug that is used to ease pain and lower fever. It is one of the safest pain killers. It does not cause stomach irritation and so it can be used instead of aspirin or ibuprofen by people with stomach ulcers. It can also be used by pregnant women, and is safe at lower doses for children.

Information you
should know
Paracetamol does not cure sickness, it only eases pain or fever. It is important to find the cause of the pain and fever and treat that.
Signs of taking too much
Nausea, vomiting, pain in the stomach
Often comes in:
Tablets of 100, 325 and 500 mg
Liquid in 120 or 160 mg per 5 ml
Inserts of 80, 120, 300, 325, or 650 mg
Drops of 80 mg per 0.8 ml

How to use:
For pain or to lower fever, take 500 to 1000 mg by mouth every 4 to 6 hours as needed.

Other medicines
that may work
For pain, fever, or swelling: aspirin or ibuprofen may work, but do not use either during pregnancy.

Warning
Do not take if you have liver or kidney damage. It can cause damage if taken regularly during or after drinking alcohol.

penicillin (Bentapen VK, PenVee K, phenoxymethyl penicillin)

Penicillin is an antibiotic used to treat mouth, tooth, skin, womb, and many other infections. Unfortunately, a lot of resistance to penicillin has developed and it is less useful than previously

Information you
should know
Watch for allergic reactions and allergic shock.
Side effects
Rash
Often comes in:
Tablets of 250, 500 mg
Liquid of 125 or 250 mg per 5 ml

How to use:
For womb infection after childbirth: take 250 mg (which is the same as 400,000 U) by mouth 4 times a day for 7 days.
For skin infection or sores: take 250 mg by mouth 4 times a day for 10 days.

Other medicines
that may work
For womb infection after childbirth: amoxicillin, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, metronidazole
For skin infection: dicloxacillin, doxycycline,erythromycin, tetracycline
Warning
Do not take if you are allergic to any of the medicines in the penicillin family.

Pregnant women should not take this medicine

Breastfeeding women should not take this medicine

WARNING!
podophyllin (Condylox, Podocon-25, podophylom resin)

Podophyllin is a liquid that can be put directly on genital warts to shrink them.

Information you
should know
Podophylin is very irritating to healthy skin. Use only a little bit (1/2 ml or less) at a time. Protect the area around the wart with petroleum jelly (Vaseline) before using podophyllin.
Side effects
Can be very irritating to skin.
Often comes in:
Liquid in 10% to 25%

How to use:
Apply liquid to warts with a cotton swab, a toothpick, or a clean cloth rolled to a fine point. After 4 hours, wash it off carefully with soap and water. Use once a week for 4 weeks.

Other medicines
that may work
For genital warts: trichloroacetic acid or bichloroacetic acid
Warning
Do not put on bleeding warts, birthmarks, moles, warts with hair, or in the mouth. If severe skin irritation occurs, do not use it again. Do not use if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.

Pregnant women need to take special care

Breastfeeding women need to take special care

WARNING!
probenicid (Benemid, Probalan)

Probenicid is used with some antibiotics of the penicillin family to make the penicillin stay inside the body longer. This makes the treatment more effective.

Information you
should know
Do not give probenicid to children under 2 years old.
Side effects
Sometimes causes headache, nausea, or vomiting.
Often comes in:
Tablets of 500 mg

How to use:
Take 500 mg to 1 gram by mouth each time you use an antibiotic from the penicillin family

Warning
Use with caution during pregnancy and breastfeeding, or if you have a stomach ulcer.

procaine penicillin (Benzylpenicillin Procaine, Bicillin C-R, Crysticillin, Duracillin AS, Penadur, Pfizepen AS, Wycillin)

Procaine penicillin is an antibiotic used to treat womb and other infections, such as infected pressure sores, and gonorrhea that is not resistant to penicillin.

Information you
should know
When taken with probenecid, the amount of penicillin in the blood increases and lasts longer, making the treatment more effective.
Side effects
May cause yeast infection in women, and a rash on a baby or small child’s bottom.
Often comes in:
Vials for injection of 300,000 and 400,000 and 600,000 Units
Powder for mixing injections of 1 gram = 1 million Units.

How to use:
For fever during pregnancy, inject 1.2 million Units into muscle every 12 hours while you take the woman for medical treatment.

Other medicines
that may work
For fever during pregnancy: ampicillin, metronidazole
Warning
Procaine penicillin can cause asthma attacks in people who have asthma. Never use this drug with tetracycline. Do not use procaine penicillin if you are allergic to antibiotics in the penicillin family. Never inject this into the vein.


tetanus toxoid (Tetavax)

Tetanus toxoid is an immunization given to prevent a tetanus infection. It can be given during or after pregnancy, or after a miscarriage. If a woman gets 2 injections (or better still, 3 injections) when pregnant, it will also prevent this deadly infection in her newborn baby.

Information you
should know
Tetanus immunizations should be given to everyone, starting in childhood.
Side effects
Pain, redness, warmth, slight swelling.
Often comes in:
Liquid for injection of 4, 5, or 10 U per 0.5 ml

How to use:
To be safe from tetanus for your entire life, you must get 5 immunization injections, and then one injection every 10 years.
For each immunization: Give 1 injection of 0.5 ml into the muscle of the upper arm.

Pregnant women should not take this medicine

Breastfeeding women should not take this medicine

WARNING!
tetracycline (Achromycin, Sumycin, Terramycin, Theracine, Unimycin)

Tetracycline is an antibiotic of the tetracycline family. It is used to treat many infections, including chlamydia, syphilis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), kidney and bladder infections. Doxycycline works for all the same infections, costs less, and is easier to take.

Information you
should know
Tetracycline does not fight common colds or prevent STIs.
Side effects
If you spend time in the sun, tetracycline can cause skin rashes. It may cause diarrhea or upset stomach.
Often comes in:
Capsules of 100, 250, or 500 mg
Ointment 1%

How to use:
For chlamydia, take 500 mg by mouth 4 times a day for 7 days
For syphilis: 500 mg by mouth 4 times a day for 14 days.
For PID: take 500 mg by mouth 4 times a day until fever is gone for 2 days. See drug combinations to treat vaginal discharge or PID.
For skin infection, take 250 mg by mouth 4 times a day for 14 days.
For baby eye-care: put a little ointment in each eye at birth, one time only.

Other medicines
that may work
For chlamydia: azithromycin, doxycycline, erythromycin
For syphilis: benzathine penicillin, doxycycline, erythromycin
For PID: See drug combinations to treat vaginal discharge or PID
For skin infection: dicloxicillin, doxycycline, erythromycin, penicillin
For baby eye-care: erythromycin ointment
Warning
Do not take within 1 hour of eating dairy products or antacids. Do not use tetracycline that it has been in the sun a long time or is past its expiration date. Pregnant or breastfeeding women should not use tetracycline.
trichloroacetic acid (TCA), bichloroacetic acid (BCA)

Either trichloroacetic acid or bichloroacetic acid can be used to treat genital warts.

Information you
should know
First protect the area around the wart with petroleum jelly (Vaseline). Then put on trichloroacetic acid. It will hurt for 15 to 30 minutes. If it spills onto healthy skin, wash it off with soap and water. You can also put baby powder (talc) or baking soda on spills.
Side effects
Trichloroacetic acid will hurt or destroy normal skin
if spilled.
Often comes in:
Liquids in strengths between 10% and 35%

How to use:
Put only on wart once a week for 1 to 3 weeks
as needed.

Other medicines
that may work
podophyllin
Warning
Use very carefully. It can burn normal skin badly enough to cause a scar.