Hesperian Health Guides

Hesperian Health Guides

Appendix C: Child Development Charts

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HealthWiki > Helping Children Who Are Deaf > Appendix C: Child Development Charts


In this chapter:
How to use these child development charts


Children develop in several main areas: physical (the body), mental (the mind), communication (signing or talking), and social (relating to other people). Any one action a child does often includes a skill from each area.

A baby standing and holding up his arms.

For example, when a child reaches his arms up to be held, he is using a:

  • physical skill — he holds up his arms
  • mental skill — he recognizes you
  • communication skill — he tells you what he wants
  • social skill — he enjoys being held by you


The charts in this chapter show some of the skills children learn and the age at which most children learn them. You can use the charts to get general information about how children develop and to help you decide what skills your child needs to learn.

Images of a child at 6 months, 12 months, and 2 years.
The charts show how children's physical skills change as children grow.

How to know what skills your child needs to learn

Find the chart for the age group closest to your child’s age. On the chart, circle the skills your child has. You may find your child does not have some skills that other children his age have. Knowing this can help you decide which activities you want to work on with your child.


A child development chart with 5 skills circled for social, physical and mental skills. No skills are circled for communication skills.


In the chart above, a mother has circled the skills her 20-month-old daughter can do. Her child needs help to gain skills in each area, but most of all she needs help in the communication area and in the mental area. For a child this young, the family should be working on basic communication (Chapter 4) and beginning to introduce language.

For an older child, you can start by looking at the chart that is nearest his age. But you may have to look at the charts for younger children to see the skills the child can do. Other charts will give you an idea of the kinds of skills your child will need to learn before he can work on learning skills like the ones on the chart nearest his age.

If your child cannot hear well, it is likely that he needs extra help to develop his communication, mental, and social skills. Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 will be helpful because they explain how children learn language and give some general tips for how to work with young children. Because children’s mental skills grow together with their communication skills, the activities in Chapters 4, 7, 8, and 9 will help a child increase both his communication and mental development. Chapter 10, on social skills, suggests many ways you can help a child develop his social interactions.


Each part of this circle shows a different area of development. The pictures and words are examples of skills that many babies have when they are 3 months old.


3
months
old
Communication
Mental
Social
Physical


A man carrying his baby.
responds to
familiar voices
or faces
A man playing a flute to his baby.
reacts to
sudden sounds or movements
A man carrying his baby.
recognizes main caregivers
A woman holding her crying baby.
cries when hungry or uncomfortable
A man touching his baby.
can be
comforted by
voice or touch
A woman smiling at her baby.
smiles when
played with
A baby looking at its hands.
is aware of hands
A woman breastfeeding her baby.
sucks on breast
A baby lying on his belly lifting his head.
lifts head up when on belly



Babies who are deaf or cannot hear well will benefit from activities that help them develop in all of the skills in each area. The pictures are only examples of skills. In this example, look at the ‘Communication’ part of the circle: You do not have to play the flute! The question to ask yourself is if your baby reacts to a sudden sound or movement.

Keep in mind that the goal is for your baby to do the activities that other babies the same age do in your community.


Each part of this circle shows a different area of development. The pictures and words are examples of skills that many babies have when they are 6 months old.


6
months
old
Communication
Mental
Social
Physical
A woman lying down with a baby on her chest.
makes simple
sounds or gestures
A man lying beside his baby shaking a rattle.
turns head toward sounds or movements
A woman taking something from her baby's mouth.
picks up things and puts them
in mouth
A woman and a baby play with toys.
plays with toys in different ways
A girl and her baby play with toys.
is interested
in objects
A woman looking at a baby who turns her head away.
shows fear
with
strangers
A baby lying down reaching her arms up to her mother.
makes requests for attention
A baby reaches his arms out to her parents.
recognizes several people
A baby lying down with arms out to the side.
rolls from stomach to back
and from back to stomach
A baby sitting in his mother's lap.
sits with some
support
A baby lying down playing with a rattle.
wiggles and kicks
arms and legs

Babies who are deaf or cannot hear well will benefit from activities that help them develop in all of the skills in each area. The pictures are only examples of skills. In this example, look at the ‘Physical’ part of the circle: Your baby does not have to play with a rattle. The question to ask yourself is if your baby wiggles and kicks.

Keep in mind that the goal is for your baby to do the activities that other babies the same age do in your community.


Each part of this circle shows a different area of development. The pictures and words are examples of skills that many babies have when they are 12 months old.


12
months
old
Communication
Mental
Social
Physical


understands simple
words or signs
Give it
to me.
A small child repeating what his father says.
A woman signing to her small child.
A baby holding a rattle and making baby sounds.
begins to babble
by joining sounds
together, or
repeats hand
shapes
imitates single
words or signs
ba-ba
ga-ga
Papa.
Papa.
A baby sitting with a cup behind her.
learns that an object exists even if it is
out of sight
A baby putting a lid on a box.
works to solve simple problems
A baby pulling a string tied to a rattle.
begins to
understand cause
and effect
A baby standing and reaching up with his arms.
uses gestures
A crying baby lying down.
cries when caregiver leaves
A man covering his boy's face with a blanket.
begins to enjoy
social games
like peek-a-boo
A baby sitting up alone.
sits without help
A baby crawling.
crawls
A baby stands up holding on to a stool.
pulls to
standing
position

Babies who are deaf or cannot hear well will benefit from activities that help them develop in all of the skills in each area. The pictures are only examples of skills. In this example, look at the ‘Social’ part of the circle: You do not have to play peek-a-boo with your baby. The question to ask yourself is if your baby enjoys social games.

Keep in mind that the goal is for your baby to do the activities that other babies the same age do in your community.


Each part of this circle shows a different area of development. The pictures and words are examples of skills that many children have when they are 2 years old.


2
years
old
Communication
Mental
Social
Physical
uses sentences
with 2 and 3
words or signs
Play
ball.
A small girl.
A boy speaking and holding a ball.
A small child signing and pointing to a cup.
uses
simple
words
or signs
knows 50 to
200 words
or signs
Cup.
A boy playing with different sized balls.
matches
objects
A girl beating a drum with a stick.
uses objects related to
each other
A child playing with several toys.
pays attention to
activities for
longer times
2 girls playing next to each other.
plays alongside
other children
A boy washing hands with his father.
imitates caregiver
A small girl facing her father.
asks others
when she
needs help
A small child stacking boxes.
stacks large
objects
A small boy walking.
walks
A small child squatting.
squats


Children who are deaf or cannot hear well will benefit from activities that help them develop in all of the skills in each area. The pictures are only examples of skills. In this example, look at the ‘Mental’ part of the circle: Your child does not have to be able to play a drum. The question to ask yourself is if your child uses 2 objects together.

Keep in mind that the goal is for your child to do the activities that other children the same age do in your community.


Each part of this circle shows a different area of development. The pictures and words are examples of skills that many children have when they are 3 years old.


3
years
old
Communication
Mental
Social
Physical
A woman signing to her small boy.
Where's your
biscuit?
A girl standing.
A small child speaking.
communicates
clearly
I want to go
with papa
understands most
simple language
knows and uses
500 to 1000
words or signs


A boy fitting shapes together.
fits shapes into
matching holes or
spaces
A boy sorting different shaped stones.
sorts
objects
A girl putting a lid on a box.
takes things apart and puts them together
A woman and her daughter sweeping together.
likes to be praised after
doing simple tasks
Thank you
for helping
A woman and her daughter washing clothes together.
enjoys helping
around the house
A boy touching his mother's tears.
is aware of people's
feelings
A boy running.
runs,
jumps,
climbs
A girl taking a lid off a container.
uses hand for
more complex tasks
A boy throwing a ball.
throws
a ball


Children who are deaf or cannot hear well will benefit from activities that help them develop in all of the skills in each area. The pictures are only examples of skills. In this example, look at the ‘Social’ part of the circle: Your child does not have to sweep the floor. The question to ask yourself is if your child enjoys helping work with the family.

Keep in mind that the goal is for your child to do the activities that other children the same age do in your community.


Each part of this circle shows a different area of development. The pictures and words are examples of skills that many children have when they are 5 years old.


5
years
old
Communication
Mental
Social
Physical
A boy with wet clothes signing.
I fell in
the water.
A girl standing.
A boy asking questions to his father.
asks many
questions
Who is over
there?
What are
they doing?
talks or signs
about what
he has done
uses about
2000 words
or signs


A boy planting seeds in a garden.
follows simple
directions
A girl playing with a puzzle.
does
simple
puzzles
A boy playing with an abacus.
understands
counting
3 children playing together rolling a tire.
understands rules
2 children sitting at a school desk in front of a teacher.
plays with other
children
A girl signing.
I'm sad.
I'm sorry.
expresses
many
feelings
A boy copying shapes on the ground.
copies simple
shapes
A girl walking backwards.
easily walks
backwards
A boy hopping on 1 foot.
hops on
one foot


Children who are deaf or cannot hear well will benefit from activities that help them develop in all of the skills in each area. The pictures are only examples of skills. In this example, look at the ‘Social’ part of the circle: Your child does not have to be paying attention to a teacher. The question to ask yourself is if your child understands rules like other children do.

Keep in mind that the goal is for your child to do the activities that other children the same age do in your community. same age do in your community.


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