Hesperian Health Guides

Hesperian Health Guides

Common problems when learning to talk

Every day 20,000 people visit the HealthWiki for lifesaving health information. If everyone gave just $5 we could translate 50 more chapters.

Make a giftMake a gift to support this essential health information people depend on.


HealthWiki > Helping Children Who Are Blind > Chapter 6: Communication > Common problems when learning to talk


Children who can see get ideas for communicating from watching people talk. A child who cannot see well misses this and may learn to talk later than a child who can see. So, when learning to talk, a child who cannot see well often:

  • repeats what others say rather than speaking his own thoughts
  • uses words like ‘he,’ ‘she,’ ‘it,’ and ‘you’ (pronouns) incorrectly
  • does not turn toward the person speaking
  • asks a lot of questions


If your child is having some of these problems, here are some activities that may help.

Contents

To help your child speak his own thoughts

It is natural for young children to repeat what others say. In fact, a young child should be encouraged to repeat words because this helps him learn to speak. But a child who cannot see well often continues repeating words for a long time, rather than learning to say what he is thinking. This happens because:

  • your child may want to keep talking with you but not know enough words to tell you this.
  • he may not understand your words, since he cannot see what you are talking about.
  • he may repeat the words to try to understand what they mean.


a woman and a child speaking.
Do you want some beans?
Do you want some beans?
Yes, I want some beans. They’re good.

If your child repeats what you say, let him know you heard him, and then expand on what he said. This shows your child that you are listening to him. It also shows him some other ways to respond.

a man and a child speaking.
Papa’s going now, Rashid.
Papa’s going now, Rashid.
Rashid, are you upset? Are you saying you don’t want me to go?


Try to understand what your child is trying to say when he repeats your words. Often it helps to look for feelings and ideas he may want to talk about but does not know how to say.

a woman speaking to a child as they put fruit in baskets.
This is a pineapple. Feel how rough the outside is. When we cut it open, the inside is almost smooth and very sweet.


Give your child many opportunities in the community to learn about the world and to touch the things you talk about. This will help him learn more words so he will need to repeat things less often. It will also show other people how they can help your child.

a woman and a child speaking.
Do you want some soup?
Do you want some soup?
If you are hungry, Noah, say “Yes, I want soup.”


As your child gets older, let him know that repeating what others say is not sending the right message.

To help your child learn to use pronouns

Pronouns are words like ‘he,’ ‘she,’ ‘you,’ or ‘it’. These words can refer to many different people or things. All children have some difficulty learning to use these words correctly. But children who cannot see well have more difficulty because they cannot see who or what is being talked about, or if the person talking is a man or a woman. It often takes an extra year or two for children who cannot see well to use pronouns correctly.

Use pronouns when talking to your child, even if he is not using them correctly. But make sure he knows you are talking to him. You can say his name first or touch him gently to get his attention.

a girl speaking to a small child while a boy watches.
Pedro, Juan and I want to play a game with you. Can you play with us?

Play games that teach parts of the body. When your child knows the parts of his body, help him identify the same parts on other people.

a woman speaking to a child as he points to his mouth.
Where’s your mouth?
I have a mouth too. Can you find my mouth?
a girl speaking as she points a boy's finger toward himself.
Time for you to go to bed.


If your child seems confused, show him who you are talking about by guiding him to point to the person the pronoun refers to.

a man speaking to a child.
First, I’ll roll the ball to you, Noah.




Play games that encourage taking turns. Emphasize pronouns as you play.

If your child is using pronouns incorrectly because he is repeating other people’s words, try the suggestions in the previous section.

To help your child face the person who is speaking

Because they do not see other people talking, children who are blind do not know that they should face the person they are talking with.

Encourage your child to turn toward other people when he is talking to them.

a woman speaking as she turns a child's head toward her.
Turn toward me when I talk, Noi.
At first, you can gently turn his head toward you as you speak.
a woman speaking to a child who is facing away from her.
Mama, what’s that noise?
Joey, please turn to face me when you talk. Then I can answer your question.
When he is older, teach him to face you as you speak.

To help your child ask fewer questions

Most children go through a time in which they ask a lot of questions. But blind children often ask questions for a much longer time. This may be because:

  • they cannot see what is happening around them.
  • they do not know enough words to carry on a conversation.
  • they want contact with another person.
  • they are so often asked questions by adults.


If your child is asking so many questions that it is hard for you to answer them all, or if these questions seem to keep him from learning other ways of talking, he needs your help.

a boy asking questions and a woman answering while a man and two children play nearby.
What is Papa doing? What are they playing? When will they stop?
Sandeep, you’d like to play too, wouldn’t you? Why not ask Papa, “Can I play, too?”


Look for the feelings that may be behind the child’s questions.

a woman speaking to a child as they stand outside.
Do you hear the loud noises? Men with big trucks are working on the road. Later, we can go and visit them.


Describe new experiences before your child has them. This way he does not need to ask questions to find out what is going on.

a woman speaking to a child.
It’s time for bed now.


Listen to how you talk to your child. Are you asking him a lot of questions? If so, try turning some of your questions into statements. For example, instead of asking “Do you want to go to bed?” say:


en.hesperian.org
In other languages